Added: Meri Hoover - Date: 29.09.2021 12:02 - Views: 44848 - Clicks: 2234
Last Name. Share this . Follow Ballotpedia. As of June , 18 states and the District of Columbia had adopted anti-discrimination laws that included protections for transgender people. Generally speaking, these laws applied to employment, housing, and public accommodations. These states are listed in the table below. As of June , there was no federal anti-discrimination law that provided protections on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. High school student Gavin Grimm identified as a transgender male.
After coming out as transgender, he began using the men's restroom in school. After nearly two months, parents of other children of the school complained to the Gloucester County School Board, which then created a policy prohibiting transgender students from using the restroom that corresponds to their gender identity. Grimm sued, arguing that the school board was violating Title IX, a federal law prohibiting gender discrimination in schools that receive federal funding.
The United States Department of Education had—in a January 7, , letter —interpreted this ban on gender discrimination as including discrimination against people based on their gender identities and their use of bathrooms. After U. District Judge Robert Doumar ruled against Grimm, the case was appealed to the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals , which overturned the lower court's ruling in a decision. The court affirmed The action of an appellate court confirming a lower court's decision.
Department of Education to interpret Title IX and remanded To return a case or claim to a lower court for additional proceedings. In June , the U. Eastern District Court of Virginia ruled that Grimm should be allowed to use the men's restroom. Supreme Court to consider the issue. In August , The U. Supreme Court granted the school district's request to block the lower court's ruling until a full appeal was made, meaning Grimm was not allowed to use the men's restroom. On October 28, , the U. Supreme Court granted certiorari Latin for "to be more fully informed. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case it will hear on appeal.
Argument in the case was scheduled for March 28, ; however, on March 6, , the judgment in the case was vacated To void, cancel, nullify, or invalidate a verdict or judgment of a court. Department of Justice and the U. Department of Education on February 22, Julienne Goins, a transgender woman, began consistently identifying as female in Later that year, she transferred a West Group facility in Eagan, Minnesota. Prior to the formal transition, Goins was observed using the women's restroom at the Eagan facility.
West Group's director of human resources, upon consultation with other employees and the company's legal counsel, "decided to enforce the policy of restroom use according to biological gender. This decision was communicated to Goins on her first day of work at the Eagan facility.
According to court documents, "Goins refused to comply with the restroom use policy, in protest in part, and continued to use the employee women's restroom closest to her workstation. In her reation letter, Goins claimed that the human resources department "had treated her in a manner that had caused undue stress and hostility. Goins filed suit in district court, "alleging that [West Group] had engaged in discrimination based on sexual orientation.
According to the state supreme court, "an employer's deation of employee restroom use based on biological gender is not sexual orientation discrimination in violation of the [Minnesota Human Rights Act]. Ased male at birth, Nicole began to identify as a girl as a toddler and throughout elementary school. Nicole, who had been using girls' bathroom facilities at Asa Adams for some time prior, continued to do so upon entering the fifth grade, with the support of school personnel. Soon after the commencement of the school year, a male student "followed [Nicole] into the restroom on two separate occasions, claiming that he, too, was entitled to use the girls' bathroom.
The student was acting on instructions from his grandfather, who was his guardian and was strongly opposed to the school's decision to allow Nicole to use the girls' bathroom. Instead, officials instructed Nicole to use a unisex staff bathroom. In December , school officials "determined that Nicole would not be permitted to use the girls' bathroom" upon transitioning to middle school.
Subsequently, the Maines family decided to move to another part of the state. On April 10, , Nicole's mother, Kelly Maines, filed a complaint with the Maine Humans Rights Commission "alleging that the superintendent and other school district entities violated the [Maine Human Rights Act] by excluding Nicole from the communal girls' bathroom at Asa Adams. On September 23, , Nicole's parents, Kelly and Wayne Maines, filed suit against the school district in Maine Superior Court, "asserting claims for unlawful discrimination in education and unlawful discrimination in a place of public accommodation on the basis of sexual orientation.
On January 30, , the Maine Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Maines family, reversing the lower court's decision. The court found that school officials had violated the state's anti-discrimination law. According to the Washington Blade , this decision marked "the first time a state court has ruled that trans students must be allowed to use a bathroom consistent with their gender identity. Thus far, Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures pertaining to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT people.
Ballotpedia did not track any statewide ballot measures pertaining to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT people that were certified for the ballot. The following is a list of recent bills that have been introduced in or passed by the state legislatures. To learn more about each of these bills, click the bill title. This information is provided by BillTrack50 and LegiScan.
Note: Due to the nature of the sorting process used to generate this list, some may not be relevant to the topic. If no bills are displayed below, then no legislation pertaining to this topic has been introduced in the legislatures recently. The link below is to the most recent stories in a Google news search for the terms Transgender bathroom gender identity.
These are automatically generated from Google. Ballotpedia does not curate or endorse these articles. Transgender bathroom access laws in the United States - Google News. Ballotpedia features , encyclopedic articles written and curated by our professional staff of editors, writers, and researchers.
Share this Follow Ballotpedia. What's on your ballot? Jump to: , search. Affirmative action Affirmative action by state Affirmative action and anti-discrimination laws Federal campaign finance laws and regulations Nonprofit regulation Some states and municipalities have adopted provisions addressing the use of restrooms by transgender people, with some permitting transgender individuals to use public restrooms that match their gender identities and others prohibiting it.
Government actions in a variety of states and localities, including North Carolina and Houston, Texas , brought this issue to the fore beginning in and As of June , more than municipalities had adopted similar local ordinances. Massachusetts Question 3, Gender Identity Anti-Discrimination Veto Referendum Status: Approved Ballotpedia did not track any statewide ballot measures pertaining to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT people that were certified for the ballot. Her parents are referred to as John and Jane Doe. : Cross-desk collaboration articles Public policy concepts and issues.
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